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What are the main components of lithium battery electrolyte?

A liquid lithium battery mainly comprises cathode materials, anode materials, the diaphragm center's four significant parts, and an electrolyte. The electrolyte is mainly responsible for the conduction between positive-negative ions, the battery energy density, cycle life, power density, and safety performance. Wide temperature applications will play a key role, known as the "blood" of the battery.

In the application of batteries, the electrolyte needs to meet high conductivity, good thermal stability, high chemical stability, wide electrochemical window, wide operating temperature range, good safety, and other performance indicators. So, what are the main components of lithium battery electrolytes?

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The main components of lithium battery electrolytes are solvents, solutes, additives, and other raw materials, which are modulated in proportion under certain conditions. The quality of the three raw materials accounts for 80%-85%, 10%-12%, and 3%-5%, respectively, and the cost accounts for 25%-30%, 40%-50%, and 10%-30%, respectively.

1, solvent: mainly as a transport carrier of lithium-ion, commonly used for carbonate solvents, including propylene carbonate (PC), ethylene carbonate (EC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), methyl ethyl carbonate (EMC) and so on. Generally, high and low-viscosity solvents are used together. Common combinations include EC+DEC, EC+DMC, EC+DMC+EMC, EC+DMC+DEC, etc.

2, solute: as a provider of lithium ions, generally choose lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4), lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), new lithium salt lithium difluoride sulfonimide (LiFSI), etc.

3, additives: specific function of the material, electrolyte generally contains a variety of additives, according to the role of film additives, high/low-temperature additives, overcharge protection additives, flame retardant additives, rate additives, etc. Typical for vinyl carbonate (VC), fluoride vinyl carbonate (FEC), and so on.

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