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LiFePO4 Batteries VS Ternary(NMC) lithium batteries

LiFePO4 Battery, as one of the battery types of electric vehicles, is characterized by its stable thermal stability, low production cost, long service life, and so on. However, its anti-low temperature performance is deficient. Under the condition of minus 10 degrees Celsius, although we can use the battery usually, the low temperature will significantly reduce the charging efficiency.

For the statement that lithium iron phosphate is too bad at low temperatures in winter, lithium iron phosphate batteries will decay more than ternary(NMC) lithium batteries, but not much. Under the same conditions, the range of a vehicle with a ternary lithium battery will be reduced by 25% due to cold winter temperatures. In comparison, the lifepo4 battery is likely to reach 30%. That's all between the two, and it's not as big as some online rumors suggest. Moreover, the difference is not entirely due to the nature of batteries.


LiFePO4 battery vs ternary(nmc) battery


Comparison of lithium iron phosphate and ternary lithium battery


Energy density

The battery energy density is an index that affects the endurance performance of new energy vehicles. The energy density of the lifepo4 battery cell is only about 150Wh/kg, while the energy density of the ternary lithium battery cell is generally more than 220Wh/kg. In other words, the energy density of a ternary lithium battery is about 1.5 times that of a lithium iron phosphate battery for the same weight, which can bring longer endurance for new energy vehicles.


Lithium iron phosphate battery currently has the best thermal stability of the power battery, compared with the ternary lithium battery, which has an absolute advantage in safety. The peak electric temperature of the lithium iron phosphate battery is as high as 350íŠ, and the chemical composition inside the battery must reach 500~600íŠ before it decomposes. The thermal stability of the ternary lithium battery is very general, and it will begin to decompose at about 300íŠ.

Charging efficiency

The ternary lithium battery has more efficient. Experimental data show little difference between the two when charging under 10íŠ, but they will separate the distance above 10íŠ. When charging at 20íŠ, the constant current ratio of the ternary lithium battery is 52.75%, and that of the lithium iron phosphate battery is 10.08%; the former is five times the latter.

Cycle life

The cycle life of the lithium iron phosphate battery is better than that of the lithium ternary battery. The academic life of the lithium ternary battery is 2000 cycles, but the capacity declines to 60% when it reaches 1000 cycles. Even Tesla's ternary lithium battery, a relatively good one in the industry, can only maintain 70% power after 3000 cycles. Lithium iron phosphate batteries can maintain 80% capacity after the same cycle.

Lithium iron phosphate batteries, by contrast, are safe, have an extended life, and resist high temperatures. Ternary lithium battery has lightweight, has high charging efficiency, and low-temperature resistance. Therefore, their coexistence lies in their respective adaptability in time and place.

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